McNabb, I.A., Fang, X., Liu, X.W. Very Large Telescope Deep Echelle Spectroscopy of Galactic Planetary Nebulae NGC6153, M1-42 and Hf2-2, 2016, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Sosciety, 461, 2818
We present deep spectroscopy of three Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) with large abundance discrepancy factors: NGC 6153, M 1-42 and Hf 2-2. The spectra were obtained with Very Large Telescope/Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph and cover the whole optical range (3040-11 000 Å) with a spectral resolution of ˜20 000. For all three PNe, several hundred emission lines were detected and identified, with more than 70 per cent of them as permitted lines. Most of these permitted lines are excited by recombination. Numerous weak optical recombination lines (ORLs) of O II, C II, N II and Ne II were detected in the spectra and accurate fluxes measured. Line flux tables were compiled and ready for use by the community of nebular astrophysics. These ORLs were critically analysed using the effective recombination coefficients recently calculated for the optical recombination spectrum of N II and O II under the physical conditions of photoionized gaseous nebulae. Plasma diagnostics based on the heavy element ORLs were carried out using the new atomic data. Elemental abundances derived from the ORLs were systematically higher than those derived from the collisionally excited lines (CELs) by a factor of ˜11, 22 and 80 for NGC 6153, M 1-42 and Hf 2-2, respectively. The electron temperatures derived from the heavy element ORLs are systematically lower than those derived from the CELs. These ORL versus CEL abundance and temperature discrepancies, previously observed in the three PNe through deep spectroscopy with medium to low spectral resolution, are thus confirmed by our analysis of the deep echelle spectra using the new atomic data.